# MatHistory Part 2

This post has taken me a while to write with several revisions because I just haven’t known how to write it in a way that gives justice to everything I have loved about this assessment. Every time I sit down to write it, a new way to introduce the post races through my head. However, I think the best way to start out is simply thanking the AP World History teachers who had the vision and the enthusiasm for working with me to create this complex, unique, and highly successful interdisciplinary assessment. So, thank you, Mr. Freeman and Mr. Sprott! I hope this leads to many more mathistory and mathenglishistry (math-English-history-chemistry) ideas!

So, here’s how the project unfolded…

Last Tuesday, the World History teacher presented our students with the idea of a power scale timeline and explained how to create one. Each group of four students were given 16+ maps of various European empires that showed the time at which each empire owned land. After identifying the region, they transferred the area onto a larger scaled timeline. Then, when all the empires were on one map, students used their mathematical knowledge to identify key points and explain why they are important relevant to time and land area (we presented this part on the second day). At this point you may be thinking whhhat theee hecckkk is this lady talking about…don’t worry, our students were also a bit perplexed by the task at the beginning and in first period, we did have a brief time when we felt as if our students might revolt against us. However, after encouraging our students to just try it out, much to their surprise with a little patient problem solving (as referenced by Dan Meyer) they excelled at the task. After they got the hang of it, I asked one student to explain the process and here is his recording. I liked getting to be in the history classroom this day because I was a second person who could help facilitate and answer questions as students created their timelines. They also started to make the connection with me being in the room that this might have some math involved in it.

On the second day, as the students were finishing their timelines, we presented them with the math portion. As they identified key points historically, we heard them using mathematical language and vocabulary terms as they talked about undecagons, parallel slopes, parabolas, intersecting lines, exponential growth, etc. It was really cool to see students make connections and hypothesize using their knowledge from both classes. We encouraged students to work together because the questions we gave them ranged in topics from both Algebra II and geometry. Each group had students from both classes and therefore they were able to be experts in the subject they were taking. Walking around helping students work through the assignment, I overheard two students talking about interdisciplinary learning and caught the end of their conversation on tape. Hearing them voice their appreciation for interdisciplinary learning really made it all worth it!

Yesterday I finished grading the math portion of the timelines and was sitting with the English teacher during our monthly Saturday school when she asked me, “so, would you do it again?” My immediate answer was, “YES!!” I think that asking students to use mathematical evidence in their explanations of what was happening historically made them think deeper. I also think they were able to synthesize better by using logical mathematical thinking. Additionally the featured image at the top of this post is one that we were very impressed by. She spent time finding key images and icons from each empire and finished her timeline with detailed watercolors. It made us think of the possibilities…perhaps students could design a timeline based on different aspects of each empire (religion, architecture, art, etc.) I think there is so much more we can do and definitely lots to think about. Over the next few weeks students will continue to learn in their World History classes about each empire and add to their timelines in order to create a large final timeline in groups…so more to come!!

Here is the link to the math student materials: MatHistory

# Two More Review Games to Try Out

We played two different review games this week in Algebra II and Geometry. I gladly give credit to the two blogs hyperlinked throughout this post after seeing my students highly engaged and excited to do math practice with the addition of these two games.

The first game is one I call “The Laundry Game” and we played it before a geometry quiz. This game can be applied to any content and any grade level even though I actually found it on a 3rd grade blog. I love this game because it takes a normal review and adds movement, competition, and immediate feedback. My intern and I were talking about how changing the format of a routine review into this game makes students do so many more problems than they normally would. I changed it up a bit by providing the answers at each station rather than having students come to me to check. That way they could check their own work and then the teacher could be facilitating and answering questions. At the end, we drew their names from the buckets, awarded prizes, and then explained the reasoning behind the name, “The Laundry Game.” We told them when they go home that night, they will find the problems they need to review again in their pockets with their laundry!

The second game we played is a BINGO game that I found here. We played this as addition to a normal practice day. I have seen and played BINGO before in the classroom, but I love how this one gives choice to students and the downloadable file is already made for you to give to students…so easy! My students LOVED this…after the first student won, several kids shouted out, “can we keep playing?!” Little did they know, they were implying, can we keep practicing logs!!

# Teams-Games-Tournament

I am always looking for new review games to use before a quiz or a test. This year, we have played Team-Games-Tournament (TGT) several times and have had great success with student mastery and engagement. This game is a cooperative learning strategy that is discussed further in “The Strategic Teacher” by Silver, Strong, and Perini. In their book, they explain the reasons why this strategy works with the number one reason being that “TGT incorporates the best of cooperation and competition.” Furthermore, it “highlights interdependence among group members, holds students individually accountable…promotes positive face-to-face interaction, builds small-group skills such as communication and conflict resolution, and encourages group processing so that students use their reflections to become better team members.” There is a bit of prep work on the teacher before hand to possibly reformat your review, create the playing cards, and make color-coded copies (my interns wonderful suggestion) for each role, but it proves very worthwhile. As compared to other review games that require the teacher to reteach or be the leader, this game is student centered and the teacher can now simply be a facilitator while students take ownership in playing, coaching, and teaching each other.

I typically give students a review sheet for the test the day before we are going to play the tournament. I give them some class time and/or assign the evens for homework. By only doing half, students are familiar with the material, but still need to review more the next day. The following day during the tournament, they will complete all the review questions. When they draw one they have already done they are instructed to do it again on a whiteboard (or a scratch piece of paper), whereas when they draw an odd question they should do it on the actual review. This gives them repetition of review and complete mastery of the content. The first time using this strategy, students will need the directions read to them and seen posted on the board. However, after a few rounds, the game becomes very clear and natural. I have loved watching students coach each other through the work while also competing with positive interactions.

Here are some directions that you can display for students as well as teacher notes to further clarify. Let me know if you play and what you thought!

Teams Games Tournament

Reference: Silver, Harvey F., Richard W. Strong, and Matthew J. Perini. The Strategic Teacher. Alexandria: ASCD, 2007. Print.

# Mathemagic

Several years ago someone introduced me to this TED talk called “A Performance of ‘Mathemagic.'” I want to leave it here for any teachers who may need a time filler after testing, an opener/closure to a lesson, or just the general public who want to be amazed. I could watch this over and over again…and teaching 6 classes a day for five years, I definitely have.

Side note- Arthur Benjamin came to Trinity a few years ago and knowing that he asks members of the audience to come up on stage and participate, I decided to bring my calculator and see if I got picked…I did!! That was a pretty awesome day! 🙂

# MatHistory

I’m getting really excited for a new idea the world history teacher and I have been brainstorming for a few weeks. We are working to intertwine some math content when he teaches Eurasian Empire power scale timelines. He came to me with this thought that math could somehow be modeled in the drawings and as soon as I saw the previous year’s final products, my math brain started running! We started drafting the actual questions today and we are going to continue to formulate our ideas until we present it to our students next week (I’m sure there will be revisions even as we are presenting it to the students…forever in reflection of our craft). Here is the link to our questions and above is the image of our thought process…but stay tuned for the final student materials and some finished products!

# Nuclear Culture

We just finished a 3 week long interdisciplinary unit on nuclear energy. I am very grateful to have the opportunity to work with the same core sophomore teachers for the past three years. We have grown together personally which I think in turn has had a positive effect on our students learning (supported by The Washington Post here), and we have also accomplished a lot professionally together. We started out three years ago trying to become more unified in our teaching approaches with simple ideas like wearing the same t-shirt on the same day. Needless to say, that wasn’t quite an authentic learning opportunity for students. Our approach evolved into us using the same vocabulary word somewhere in our dialogue throughout the week in hopes that our students would catch on and use it for their “personal dictionary” assignment in English. I definitely learned a lot of new words, but again, this was such a simple daily act and we knew we could do more!

With the help of our Trinity University interns a couple years ago, our most unified approach was created- a UbD unit centered around nuclear chemistry with lesson plans in English, world history, geometry, and Algebra II. (I have to plug an incredible master’s program here that prepares student teachers with a high level of understanding about teaching pedagogy and practice). This unit has gone through three years of revision and I have to say, the way in which everything came together this year, I think it was the our best year yet!

The first year we did the project we were not able to incorporate math because it did not fit with the scope and sequence. I still remember hearing one student mumble, “you know, we’re studying nuclear energy n every subject except math.” My heart sank and I knew I was going to find a way to make it happen! The next year, I decided to switch the sequence of our curriculum and teach exponents at the beginning of the spring semester when the nuclear culture unit started. Working with my Trinity intern that year, we created investigative lesson plans where students discovered how radioactive elements decay. Understanding asymptotes also helped students see that nuclear waste will never reach 0. We then discussed the implications for using nuclear energy based on exponential growth and decay and exponential properties. This year, I added the geometry component and solidified the inclusion of math in the unit. After my students learned about proving congruent triangles, I went into the English/World History combined classes and introduced their persuasive essay by asking students to write an outline in a mathematical proof format (I was lucky to have another intern this year and she taught a great lesson on truss strength involving triangle properties this day while I was teaching in the other room…I’ll save that post for another day). I loved how the proof writing gave my geometry students the chance to be experts on the topic they just learned and were able to refresh the Algebra II students how to write proofs. Also, the English teacher loved the way they provided evidence for their essays and did some formulaic pre-writing before jumping on a computer to type their essays. Finally, after the culminating day of the project (a “town council meeting” to debate whether we should pursue nuclear energy in San Antonio), the World History teacher created a graph where the x-axis was labeled as a continuum from “San Antonio should not pursue nuclear energy” to “San Antonio should pursue nuclear energy” and the y-axis was a continuum with “the US should not pursue nuclear energy” to “the US should pursue nuclear energy”. Students then plotted their personal opinion as a visual representation for further dialogue.

My heart is full after this unit and I loved hearing quotes like this: “I like the way every class was included in this unit because we understood all perspectives.”

# One of My Favorite Projects

I am starting off blogging by sharing one of my favorite projects that I created with my dean a few years ago. After attending a conference at Southwest Research Institute, I got inspired to do a project that would help students connect their learning of quadratics to the real world. I decided to make it about projectiles. I dreamed of getting to launch projectiles across the math classroom, but had no idea how to make this possible. After talking with my dean who is essentially a physics guru, he helped my dream become a reality. Below you will find the process and some reflections on the project.

First, we modeled a projectile using LoggerPro software and found the quadratic equation. This equation became the central focus for our students to manipulate. We asked them to find the vertex form, x-intercepts, y-intercept, and the domain and range. The fun part came on the second day of the project. We hung tennis balls in the back of the room and gave each group (groups of 3-4 students) a different height at which they would set their equation to. Using the quadratic formula, they solved their equation for the x-distance at which to launch the projectile. If their calculations were correct, they would successfully hit the tennis ball. With safety goggles on, measuring sticks in hand, and genuinely excited emotions, each group stepped up to the projectile launcher to try out their solutions. Some chose to set the launcher at the farthest distance for more fun, and some chose to go the safe route and try the closer distance. Several groups hit the target on the first try which was so fun to to watch the teamwork of their groups as they high-fived and congratulated each other. The groups that didn’t hit the target on the first try realized they needed to watch for the human error of lining the projectile launcher up straight. By the end of each class period, each group had successfully hit the target and proved their math calculations correct.

I love this project because it’s an authentic way to check their work. Also, my first couple years of doing this, I connected it to space science by having a hook that the students were trying to blast a near earth object out of our orbit (Armageddon style). Two years ago, my sophomore team and I designed a full interdisciplinary unit on Nuclear Culture. So to connect it to this, I changed the theme up a bit and had students watch a video about NATO’s ballistic missile defense program and then act as if they were helping NATO use projectiles to intercept incoming harmful missiles. Students were able to communicate their reasoning behind advantages and disadvantages of using technology like this and what might happen if we were successful or unsuccessful in hitting their target. I loved that students made connections, communicated coherently, problem solved, and found reasoning and proof (all performance outcomes that the math department at my school tries to achieve) in one single project!

Here’s the link to the student materials: Saving the World with Math

# Day 1 of Blogging

After seeing such inspiring math teaching blogs out there, I have decided to try my own. I want to post interesting things that my students accomplish, that I accomplish, and that I aspire to do. I must admit, this is my first time blogging, so this will be a new adventure for me. But essentially, I want to bring excitement to the math classroom by hopefully being inspiring as well as becoming inspired.

Thank you to Tracy Clark for all your help in getting me started in the blogging world!